黑龙江流域跨境洪灾防治的跨时段多层次合作机制研究
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摘要
近年来,随着黑龙江沿岸社会经济日趋繁荣和人口数量不断增加,流域自然环境压力逐渐加大,较大地削弱了流域抗御自然灾害的能力,黑龙江流域大规模洪灾频发。在东北亚一体化逐步推进的大背景下,中俄两国政府加强黑龙江跨境洪灾联合防治以保障沿岸社会经济发展的正常秩序。中俄在黑龙江流域有长期的跨境水资源合作,2013年两国合作成功应对流域大规模洪灾。目前,以高层定期会晤为主体的合作机制已不能满足两国合作治理跨境洪灾的复杂性和多样性需求,两国之间从中央到地方各层次合作依然存在不少问题。国际河流水资源是跨境共享资源,当前两国在应对跨境洪灾时,主要面临的问题体现在以下四方面:缺乏全方位流域洪灾防治的整体规划;两国间的自然灾害应急体制协同水平依然不高;以政府为主导的治理模式限制了其他治理主体的参与程度;黑龙江跨境洪灾防治的基础性工作较为薄弱。中俄两国政府应该根据各自水资源管理体制和灾害防治体系的主要特点探索新的区域合作治理机制。在中俄两国合作战略的指导下,从防洪组织层次与洪灾历时阶段两个维度在黑龙江流域构建跨时段多层次的跨境洪灾治理机制,以适应流域日益紧密联系的社会经济发展,逐步形成长期稳定的合作模式,最大限度地减少跨境洪灾所带来的危害。
In recent years,with the economic boom and the population growth along the Heilongjiang River Coast,the added pressure on ecological environment has weakened the basin capacity of resisting the natural disasters greatly,which triggered the large-scale frequent flooding in Heilongjiang River Basin. On the background of Northeast Asian integration,China and Russia will strengthen the cooperation of cross-border flood prevention to safeguard the normal order of economic and social development along the river. Two countries have maintained long-term cooperations of cross-border water resources in Heilongjiang River Basin and cooperated to prevent the basin flood in 2013. The existing cooperation mechanism,which is dominated by the high-level meetings,cannot meet the complex and diversified demands of cross-border flood. There are still many defects at different levels from the central to the local. The international water resources is cross-border shared resources,when China and Russia deal with cross-border flood,the main problems can be reflected in the following aspects: the river basin lacks of a full range flood protection planning; the level of natural disaster emergency system coordination remains low; the governance model dominated by the government limits the other governing subjects' participation; the basic work of Heilongjiang cross-border flood prevention is relatively weak. The two countries should construct the regional cooperative governance mechanism in the light of the characteristics of two countries' water resources management system and the disaster prevention system. The two countries should construct a multi-period and multi-layer cross-border flood prevention mechanism from the organization levels of controlling flood and all periods during the flood to meet the increasingly close combination of cross-border economic and social development,and to form a long-term and stable cooperation model gradually to minimize the crossborder flood's damage.
引文
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