相干技术在油气勘探中的应用
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摘要
相干技术是一种度量地震数据相似性的技术,被称为近几十年来三维地震解释方面最重要的突破之一.本文回顾了相干技术的发展历程,介绍了相干技术的基本原理,概述了常用的三代相干算法及其优缺点,以及国内学者近年来对相干技术不懈地探索研究.在此基础上,系统整理分析了相干技术在油气勘探方面的应用.相干技术具有压制连续性、突出不连续性的特点,将异常体的共性浓缩,把原数据体中多线、多道、多点的信息浓缩到一个点上来反映该点地质特征,因此相干体比常规数据体更加清楚直观,将各种地质现象更清晰地展示出来,可广泛地应用于油气勘探的各个阶段,即在构造特征研究、沉积环境分析、储层预测、特殊地质体识别、地震资料处理、油藏研究和层位标定共7方面.
Coherence technology is one of the most important breakthrough in the recent years,which can measure the similarity of the seismic data.This paper overviewed the development of its process,and introduced the basic physics different types and merits&shortcomings of coherence technology.The first generation of coherent algorithm is easy to realize and computing speed advantages;but this method is to assume that seismic data is zero average signal,high quality requirements and noise sensitive.The second generation algorithm based on similarity measurement by building the matrix.The methods considers the strata and azimuth Angle,anti-noise ability and stability enhancement,but the transverse resolution is low.The third based on coherent algorithm,through the matrix of the characteristics of seismic data structure to describe the coherence.The third generation of coherent algorithm has the transverse resolution is increasing,the anti-noise ability strong advantage,but this method is not sensitive to large dip Angle strata,calculation increase greatly.Relative studies in recent years of the coherence technology were summarized.Based on the above,the application of the coherence technology in hydrocarbon exploration was systematically analyzed.The coherence technology has the characteristics of pressing continuity and highlighting the discontinuity.Through generality summarization of anomalous bodies,the information of multiple lines,channels and dots were concentrated on a point to reflect the geology characteristics,so the coherence data was clearer than the conventional data and the geology phenomenon was illustrated more clearly.What's more,the coherence technology can be widely used in different stages of the hydrocarbon exploration including tectonics characteristics study,sedimentary setting analysis,the identification of special geologic bodies,the processing of seismic data,reservoir research and formation calibration.
引文
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