低渗透储层裂缝研究进展
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摘要
储层裂缝对改善致密砂岩和碳酸盐岩等低渗透储层以及致密砾岩、火成岩、泥页岩等非常规低渗透储层的物性具有重要作用。通过总结近年来储层裂缝的相关研究进展,对储层裂缝的多种识别和预测方法进行了分析,并讨论了储层裂缝研究的几个关键问题。结果表明:储层裂缝的识别技术是点(岩芯、薄片)、线(测井)、面(相似地表露头区)、体(地震资料)和时间(生产动态资料)组成的多维综合体系;储层裂缝的定性预测主要是根据裂缝与构造部位和岩性之间的关系进行,定量预测方法包括井间直接插值法、曲率法、能量法与岩石破裂法(二元法)、地震法、分形分维法、构造应力场数值模拟法和多参数判据法等,每种预测方法各有其优势与不足,因此,需要综合多种方法才能实现储层裂缝的有效预测;储层裂缝研究的关键问题包括裂缝分布预测与精细表征、裂缝动态参数和裂缝三维地质建模等方面。最后,在油气田勘探开发中进行储层裂缝预测及建模等工作时,应以明确储层裂缝的成因、演化及主控因素为基础。
Reservoir fractures have a significant effect on improving the physical property of tight sandstone reservoir,carbonate rock reservoir and unconventional low-permeability reservoir such as tight conglomerate rocks,igneous rocks and shale rocks.The researches on reservoir fracture were summarized,several methods of recognition and prediction on reservoir fracture were analyzed,and several key questions in reservoir fracture research were discussed.The results show that the recognition technology of reservoir fracture is a multi-division synthetic system composed with point(core and slices),line(logging),surface(similar surface outcrops),volume(seismic data)and time(dynamic production data);the qualitative prediction of reservoir fracture is mainly based on the relationship between fracture and structural location,lithology;the quantitative prediction methods contain inter-well direct interpolation,curvature,energy and rock failure(two-factor method),seismic,fractal dimension,tectonic stress field numericalsimulation and multi-parameter criterion,etc.;each prediction method of reservoir fracture has its own advantage and disadvantage,thus the combination of multiple methods can realize the efficient prediction of reservoir fracture;the key questions of reservoir fracture research contain the fracture distribution prediction and elaborate characterization,fracture dynamic parameters and fracture 3Dgeological modeling.Finally,reservoir fracture prediction and modeling should be based on confirming the genesis,evolution and primary controlling factors of reservoir fracture in exploration and development of hydrocarbon fields.
引文
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