能量比法提取品质因子Q(英文)
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摘要
地层品质因子Q反映了地层对地震波吸收衰减的强弱,是油气检测的重要指示因子,准确提取Q值十分重要。本文根据地震子波能量衰减特征,提出基于子波衰减前后能量比的Q值提取方法。该方法是综合利用多点信息估算子波能量,规避了常规Q值方法(如质心频移法)对地震子波谱的假设,适用于任意波谱形状,但对资料的保真度要求较高。VSP正演模型测试发现,在非固有衰减(如几何扩散、反射透射损失等)得到准确补偿的前提下,能比法能较好地反演地层Q值。实际零偏VSP资料应用表明,能比法提取的Q值趋势与谱比法基本一致,具有一定的可信度。
The quality factor Q, which reflects the energy attenuation of seismic waves in subsurface media, is a diagnostic tool for hydrocarbon detection and reservoir characterization. In this paper, we propose a new Q extraction method based on the energy ratio before and after the wavelet attenuation, named the energy-ratio method(ERM). The proposed method uses multipoint signal data in the time domain to estimate the wavelet energy without invoking the source wavelet spectrum, which is necessary in conventional Q extraction methods, and is applicable to any source wavelet spectrum; however, it requires high-precision seismic data. Forward zero-offset VSP modeling suggests that the ERM can be used for reliable Q inversion after nonintrinsic attenuation(geometric dispersion, refl ection, and transmission loss) compensation. The application to real zero-offset VSP data shows that the Q values extracted by the ERM and spectral ratio methods are identical, which proves the reliability of the new method.
引文
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