汶川强震区龙溪河流域泥石流灾害分布规律研究——以四川省都江堰龙溪河8·13泥石流为例
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摘要
"5·12"汶川地震后的强震区暴发了数次泥石流灾害,2010年8月13日都江堰龙溪河流域的泥石流灾害就是其中最严重的灾害之一。龙溪河流域在75 mm/h强降雨条件下,长11 km流域内共有45处暴发泥石流灾害。在现场调查和遥感资料分析的基础上,对都江堰龙溪河沿线泥石流灾害分布规律和流域面积、高差、距断层距离、坡度、岩性等影响要素的关系进行了研究,表明:1流域面积小于1.0 km2的泥石流流域占多数,达到总数的73.3%;2高差(200~400)m范围内泥石流点最多,占总数的41.3%%,其他高差区段差别不大;3在坡度为20°~40°的范围内,其数量占总数的90%以上;而在坡度20°以内的泥石流点相对较少;4距离发震断裂5 km范围内集中了该区域的所有泥石流分布点;距断裂带越近,灾害分布越多;5泥石流灾害点在各类岩层中均较发育,但硬岩地层地质灾害分布最为集中,占48.9%。通过以上规律研究旨在为泥石流灾害的预测和防治提供借鉴和参考。
Many group debris flow hazards were triggered in the Wenchuan Earthquake area after the Wenchuan Earthquake. Group debris flow hazards in Longxi River,Dujiangyan,Sichuan Province is one of these disasters. There were 44 debris flows triggered by heavy rainfall in the catchment of Longxi River on August 13,2010. In the all of 44 debris flows,there were 33 channelized debris flows and 11 debris flows on the slope. Based on the analysis of remote sensing data and field survey,the distribute of earthquake induced geo-hazards along the Longxi River area was studied,and its relationships with the topographic and geological factors,such as elevation,distance from fault,slope gradient,and lithology,were investigated. 1 Most catchments of debris flow were small catchment,73. 3% of total catchments was less than 1 km2. 2 41. 3% of the elevation of debris flow within the range of up to 200 m to 400 m,and the other is not very different elevation zones. 3 The slope of debris flow were20° ~ 40°range,which accounts for over 90% of the total number,while relatively small at less than 20°. 4 All debris flows were distribution in 5 km from the triggering belt of Wenchuan Earthquake. 5 The hard rock formations the most concentrated distribution of geological disasters,accounting for 48. 9%. The research can provide the key geo logical guidance for the reconstruction and project construction in the area with similarly high earthquake intensity.
引文
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