地震动参数速报仪的研制
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摘要
在出现区域大震后,为了迅速展开有效的应急救援行动,需要及时准确了解烈度分布.目前震动图的获得有震后人工调查、震源参数计算、地震监测台网、地震烈度速报台网等几种方式,其中最有效的是在重点监护区建立烈度速报台网.但烈度速报台网建设往往沿用地震监测台网的模式,建设成本高、台站密度有限、实时数据传输量大.本文研制的地震动参数速报仪采用MEMS加速度计为测震传感器和ARM+Linux嵌入式计算机技术,具有体积小、成本小、功耗低、一体化、智能化的特点;其内置地震信息实时处理算法,能够自动判别地震事件并计算地震动参数;在实际应用中安装简便.通过大量密集布设这种小型仪器而组建的地震动参数速报网络,具有数据传输量小、分布式计算、组成的速报网络可靠性高、能够快速产出高分辨率的精细震动图等特点.
After violent earthquakes,we need to figure out the seismic intensity distribution as fast as possible in order to effectively operate the emergency rescue.Nowadays,the methods to get earthquake maps include manual survey after earthquake,earthquake monitor network,earthquake intensity fast report network,among them the most effective one is earthquake intensity fast report network.The earthquake monitoring network construction pattern is applied to the construction of this network,so there are several disadvantages like the large construction costs,limited site density,huge real time data transfer volume,etc. According to the requirements for fast reports of big earthquakes, we have used MEMS seismometers to manufacture an instrument of small volume,low costs,low consumption,and simple installation and strong motion monitoring to calculate earthquake parameters automatically.The features of hardware design of the earthquake parameter fast report unit are:1.Low costs,low consumption,small volume,14-bit 3-component MEMS digital accelerometer as earthquake sensor,which fits the requirements of intensity fast report resolution while taking account of the entire unit volume and costs;2.The use of high performance low consumption 32 bit ARM embedded CPU as processor to meet the acquisition,processing,storage and transfer requirements of fast report unit;3.Having used inner 32 GB large volume SD card which enablesan extended storage of cycling continuous data as long as 8months;4.Having included wired IP and wireless GSM as two physical links to access the internet,achieved a long distance data transfer of the unit;5.Build-in high capacity rechargeable Lithium battery as backup power to make sure the unit can continuously work 24 hours in case of external power failure after big earthquakes.Tailored kennel Linux operation system is applied to the unit as the software platform,and we adopt hierarchy models design from top to bottom.The application layer is suing multi-thread to archive multi-task processing,including real-time acquisition model,local database storage management model,earthquake information processing model,long distance data service model,etc.Applying drive layer has achieved sensor configuration,sensor data read/write and read/write kennel data files,etc.The main technical indicators of the earthquake parameter fast report unit are:threecomponent acceleration observation with the measure range of±2g,sample rate of 200 Hz,self noise of 99μg/槡Hz,inner 32 GB data storage recording a cycle of around 8 months in the continuous data acquisition;wired IP and wireless GSM are the two ways used for accessing the internet,which improved the reliability of data transfer.Build-in high capacity rechargeable Lithium battery to provide 24 more hours of work time after losing external power.Power consumption is lower than 1.5 W.Earthquake parameter fast report unit using MEMS accelerometer as sensor and ARM +Linux embedded technology,has the advantages such as,small volume,low cost,low consumption,integration and intelligence.This small size digital strong motion seismograph is the integration of sensor,acquisition unit and data transfer.The realtime processing algorithm for the seismic information can automatically recognize earthquake events and calculate ground motion parameters.In practical applications,this unit is easy to install.By establishing high density earthquake parameter fast report network,the high resolution,fine motion map can be made really fast,and this network is featured by using small data transfer volume,distributed calculation,high reliability.
引文
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