汶川地震生态治理区土壤种子库及其与地上植被的关系
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摘要
为了比较地震灾区不同气候类型植被恢复区土壤种子库时空分布特征,采用野外调查取样和室内试验相结合的方法,研究了四川省汶川县威州镇和绵竹市汉旺镇4类生态治理区[干旱干暖河谷受损治理区(DHD)、干旱干暖河谷未受损区(DHU)、亚热带湿润季风气候受损治理区(HMD)、亚热带湿润季风气候未受损区(HMU)]土壤种子库的萌发动态、数量特征、物种组成、多样性特征及其与地上植被之间的关系。结果表明:未受损区具有2个萌发高峰期,受损治理区只有1个萌发高峰期,不同气候类型治理区土壤种子库在不同土壤深度表现出不同的萌发潜力;4类治理区土壤种子库平均密度为192~1 544粒·m?2,表层密度和平均密度均为未受损区>受损治理区,干旱干暖河谷气候区>亚热带湿润季风气候区;4类治理区共有50种植物萌发,草本植物占显著优势;HMU、HMD、DHU、DHD地上植被与土壤种子库物种组成的S?rensen相似性系数分别为26.23%、44.9%、30.77%、16.00%,Jaccard相似性系数分别为15.09%、28.95%、18.18%、9.09%;不同类型样地土壤种子库特有种和共有物种均表现出不同的生活型格局。基于以上分析结果,在灾区进行植被恢复时,应该考虑治理区的气候环境,因地制宜的进行人工引种和制定恢复措施。
To determine the characteristics of soil seed banks and their relationships with aboveground vegetation in different climate zones, field surveys backed up with laboratory experiments were conducted in a typical ecological restoration zone in Weizhou Township(Wenchuan County) and Hanwang Township(Mianzhu City) of Sichuan Province. This zone was the epicenter of the massive Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12, 2008. We analyzed germination dynamics, quantity characteristics, species compositions, diversity characteristics and correlations with aboveground vegetation of soil seed bank in two climate areas(semi-arid dry warm river valley climate area, subtropical humid monsoon climate area) in ecological restoration zone of Wenchuan Earthquake Region. SBES(seed bank endemic species) and SAVS(seed bank aboveground vegetation species) were used as new indicators to describe the systematic process of soil SAVS system. The results suggested that while undestroyed sample plots had two germination peaks of seed bank, destroyed sample plots had only one germination peak. Seed banks in different climate areas had different germination potentials at different soil depths. The mean density of soil seed bank was 192-1 544 seeds·m?2 and both the surface density and mean density of undestroy sample plots were greater than that in destruction sample plots. Also that in semi-arid dry warm river valley climate area was greater than that in subtropical humid monsoon climate area. A total of 50 species were identified in the soil seed bank using the germination method and herbaceous plants had the most significant advantage. Both the S?rensen and Jaccard similarity coefficients of species composition between soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation showed that HMD(destroyed sample plot in subtropical humid monsoon climate area) was greater than DHU(undestroyed sample plot in semi-arid dry warm river valley climate area), also greater than HMU(undestroyed sample plot in subtropical humid monsoon climate area) which was in turn greater than DHD(destroyed sample plot in semi-arid dry warm river valley climate area). SBES and SAVS of different sample plots had different life cycle patterns. In conclusion, climate and background conditions were needed for artificial propagation and restoration measures in Wenchuan Earthquake Region.
引文
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