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首山漏斗区地下水系统数值模拟研究
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摘要
水是基础性自然资源,地下水资源作为水资源的重要组成部分,也是我国的重要供水水源之一。我国许多城镇的供水,甚至部分灌溉用水也都依靠地下水。因此地下水资源已成为我国北方可持续发展的一项重要的制约因素。
     辽阳市位于辽宁省的中部,是辽宁省重要工业基地之一,地下水资源是辽阳市工农业和城镇生活用水的主要水源。首山漏斗区位于辽阳市区西南部,水源地面积达309.6km2,该水源地始建于1919年,长期大量开采地下水以及缺乏科学统一的管理规划已形成辽宁省最大面积约280km2地下水开采漏斗,并造成以下许多问题:如不合理的开采布局致使开采区地下水降落漏斗区日益扩大;降落漏斗的形成改变了地下水的补给、排泄和径流状态;区域超采程度的不平衡性等。随着城市发展,需水量的供需矛盾日益增加,有必要对首山漏斗区地下水资源现状及其发展趋势进行调查与分析,对于漏斗区的水文恢复具有十分重要的现实意义。
     本文首先总结了地下水资源概况及国内外研究进展情况,并结合辽阳市首山漏斗区水文地质条件,明确了研究区内含水层空间分布特征、地下水补给、排泄与径流情况及地下水动态特征,建立首山地区的水文地质概念模型。运用地下水系统数值模拟软件Visual modflow建立模拟模型,模型的识别和检验结果表明,所建模型能够较好地反映当地的实际水文地质条件。
     在此基础上,得到各典型降水频率年地下水补给量。分析在不同降水频率影响下漏斗区水文变化,以及不同开采布局对首山漏斗区水文影响,为研究区合理开采地下水提供科学依据。
Water is the basic natural resource, and as an important constituent of water resources, groundwater resources are also one of the water supply sources. The water supplies of many cities and towns in our country depend on the groundwater resources. And even does some irrigation water .Therefore, the groundwater resources have been an important restriction of the sustainable development in the northern parts of our country.
     Liaoyang city is located in the middle of Liaoning province; it is one of the essential industrial bases of Liaoning province. And groundwater is the major water source of Liaoyang city’s industrial, agricultural and urban life. Mountain Shou’s funnel area is located in southwestern Liaoyang, the area of this water head site is 309.6square kilometers. This water head site was founded in 1919; a 280square kilometers’groundwater funnel,which is the biggest one in Liaoning Province,was formed since long-term overexploitation of groundwater and lack of scientific management and planning of unity;And caused these following problems: such as unreasonable exploitation distribution of groundwater has gradually expanded the cone of depression area in the exploitation region; the formation of the cone of depression has changed the statement of ground waters’supply, discharge and run-off; the unbalancedness of regional over-exploited degree and so on. As the development of this city, the contradiction between supply and demand of water has gradually increased. So it is necessary to take some investigations and analyses of the present situation and the development trend of groundwater resources in the funnel area of Mount Shou, and this is meaningful to the hydrological recovery in funnel area.
     Firstly, this paper summarized the general situation of groundwater resources and the progress of domestic and overseas research, and then combined the hydrogeological conditions, accurately characterized the spatial distribution features,replenishment of groundwater, discharge and runoff as well as the features of transmission of underground fluid of aquifer in the research area, and established the hydrogeological conceptual model of Mount Shou area. Using numerical simulation software of groundwater system Visual Modflow established simulation model, the recognition and test results of this model shows that the model can better reflect the actual hydrogeology condition of the local area.
     On this base, we can gain the groundwater recharge in every typical rain frequency year,and analyze the funnel area hydrological changes under the influence of different rainfall frequency.As well as different mining layout influence to the research area.Provides the scientific basis for the research area reasonable mining ground water
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